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Australian Gemini Undergraduate Summer Studentships
Congratulations to the AGUSS recipients for 2016/17: Grace Lawrence (Swinburne University of Technology) and Daniel Muthukrishna (U. Queensland).
The twin Gemini telescopes are the among the most powerful optical/infra-red telescopes in the world. Australia is a partner in these telescopes, together with the USA, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Australian involvement in the Gemini Observatory is managed by the International Telescopes Support Office, hosted by the Australian Astronomical Observatory. Funding for the Australian Gemini Undergraduate Summer Studentships (AGUSS) scheme is provided by Astronomy Australia Ltd. (AAL) through a grant from the Commonwealth government's National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS).
We invite applications from Australian undergraduate students who would like to carry out a 10 week research project at the Gemini South observatory, located in the north of Chile. Students will carry out a research project under the supervision of Gemini Observatory staff. The International Telescopes Support Office will pay the return airfare from Australia to the town of La Serena, Chile, and provide a stipend of ~A$700 per week (gross, plus superannuation). We will also provide travel/medical insurance for the duration of the Studentship.
Details of the Studentships
It is expected that two studentships will be offered for the summer of 2016/17. They will last for ten weeks, from early-December until mid-February. They are open to undergraduate students who are Australian citizens or permanent residents currently enrolled at an Australian university who have completed at least two years of an undergraduate degree in Physics, Maths, Astronomy or Engineering (students currently studying for a Masters degree in one of these fields may be considered if their undergraduate degree was in a different field). AGUSS students will be temporarily appointed to the Australian Public Service and travel on an Official Passport, and must receive a security clearance.
In addition to carrying out a research project, the students may participate in lectures and social activities offered at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, jointly with a group of US and Chilean summer scholars. The students will spend a few nights each assisting with observations at the Gemini South telescope, and also visit the 6.5m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, on which Australian astronomers also have some observing time.
About Gemini South
The Gemini South telescope is located on the mountain of Cerro Pachon, in the Chilean Andes. It is equipped with the world's only multi-conjugate adaptive optics laser guide star system (GeMS), as well as a state-of-the-art exoplanet finder (GPI), plus "workhorse" optical and infrared cameras + spectrographs. The observatory has its headquarters in the nearby city of La Serena. The observatory will arrange accommodation for the students, usually within the observatory compound. When accommodation within the compound is unavailable, Gemini South will secure suitable private accommodation nearby. In either case rent will be the student's responsibility, but typically costs less than US$500 per month.
- 2016/17: Grace Lawrence (Swinburne University of Technology); Daniel Muthukrishna (U. Queensland).
- 2015/16: Benjamin Courtney-Barrer (Australian National University); Deeksha Beniwal (U. Adelaide); Samuel Hinton (U. Queensland).
- 2014/15: Rhiannon Gardiner (Monash University); Conor O'Neill (U. Queensland).
- 2013/14: Rebecca Davies (Australian National University); Marcus Wong (Monash University).
- 2012/13: Stephanie Pointon (University of Adelaide); Benjamin Prout (Australian National University).
- 2011/12: Joseph Callingham (University of Sydney); Aina Musaeva (University of Sydney).
- 2010/11: Belinda Nicholson (U. Melbourne); Steven Saffi (U. Adelaide).
- 2009/10: Courtney Jones (U. Tasmania); Daniel Burdett (U. Adelaide).
- 2008/09: Sophie Underwood (U. Adelaide); David Palamara (Monash University).
- 2007/08: Emily Craven (U. Adelaide); Jacinta Delhaize (U. Western Australia); Richard Linossi (Monash University).
- 2006/07: Peter Jensen (U. Queensland); Simon Murphy (Australian National University); Lisa Torlina (U. Sydney).
Over the summer of 2016/2017 I had the honour of being awarded an Australian Gemini Undergraduate Summer Studentship. This allowed me to travel to La Serena, Chile, for ten weeks and undertake a body of research work, as well as, immerse myself in both the Gemini South Team and the South American/Chilean culture. Working with tenure-track astronomer, Morten Andersen, I delved into the world of crowded field photometry using an exquisite combination of Hubble Space Telescope data and GeMs Multi-Conjugative Adaptive Optics observations in the near-infrared to probe the low-mass stellar population of local, young and massive cluster, Westerlund 1.
From the day that Daniel (the other AGUSS recipient) and I landed in Chile we were afforded a myriad of opportunities to expand our astronomy knowledge, professional network and enthusiasm. Joining the conference for Accretion Processes in Symbiotic Stars and Related Objects, we visited Cerro Pachon and toured the Gemini telescopes (Gemini and SOAR) on our first day in La Serena. Throughout our stay, there were a range of colloquia we were able to attend and the Gemini work environment was always welcoming; with many helpful colleagues, we soon made fast friends. La Serena is a beautiful beach-side town and we made sure to take advantage of the lively shore-line and vibrant culinary experiences there. Both Daniel and myself were lucky to travel to the Atacama Desert over the Christmas period and experience San Pedro de Atacama. Sand dunes, desert foxes, hot geysers and martian landscapes were an exciting way to spend Christmas! Living in Casa Trece (House 13) on the AURA recinto, we lived with many transient astronomers and a range of other research students from Chile, Brazil, Argentina, Germany, Australia and Italy! I would strongly recommend brushing up on some Spanish language classes before arriving as well!
In addition to this incredible project, we were lucky to have site visits to both the Gemini (SOAR and Gemini) and Las Campanas (Swope, Du Pont, Twin Magellan) observatories. We spent two nights on the summit at Gemini during the January laser run learning about the adaptive optics and unique queue system for observations. At Las Campanas I was lucky enough to watch the Clay telescope have its secondary mirror replaced to add a new adaptive optics system. This year, thanks to our supervisors Morten and Veronica, the AGUSS scholars were able to attend the XIV Annual Meeting of the Chilean Astronomical Society (SOCHIAS) in Maitencillo. Four jam-packed days filled with talks on the latest work across a myriad of astronomy fields; dark matter, galaxy structure, exo-planets, black holes, supernovae, instrumentation and more! The AGUSS program provides students with a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to work on an incredible research project and utilise the first-class, world-leading telescopes available in Northern Chile, in the foothills of the central Andes. We were able to see what a real academic research career looks like and this, combined with the natural beauty and idyllic setting of La Serena, makes the Gemini Studentships such an amazing program. I would implore any young scholars with an interest in astronomy and astrophysics research to apply.
If you're interested in astronomy, engineering, Chile, and having fun, then you should apply for this studentship. I had an absolutely wonderful time working at Gemini South over the 2014/2015 summer. La Serena, where you will live and work, is a beautiful town, the Gemini workplace is comfortable and welcoming, and the telescope is obviously very cool and in a really scenic location. The AAO and AURA/Gemini sort out all the complexities of setting up this type of endeavour, including travel, accommodation, and being able to work in Chile in the first place. This makes everything nice and easy for you.
I worked with Juan Madrid looking at globular clusters in the Coma galaxy cluster. We actually used imaging data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, which was pretty cool, and we were joined by a U.S. REU student Alex Gagliano. This was fun and productive work on a topic I didn't know much about going into the project. I learned a lot and got some nice results that we hope to publish in the not-too-distant future.
Everyone at Gemini is really friendly, helpful and welcoming, as are the people in Chile in general. There were plenty of casual Science Coffees where staff would chat about new papers or general news over coffee, as well as colloquia. Both of these were great learning opportunities. We learned what it takes to operate a world-class facility like Gemini South, both in the planning and preparation as well as the telescope operation, which we witnessed directly at the telescope after a guided tour. I also was shown the creation of the laser carved multi-object slit masks for spectroscopy. Rhiannon and I were also fortunate enough to be shown around not only the telescopes at Cerro Pachon (Gemini and SOAR), but also Cerro Tololo (including the 4m Blanco telescope) and Las Campanas (including the twin 6.5m Magellan telescopes).
It's not all work though! There's plenty to see and do in Chile, and 10 weeks passes quickly, so try to make the most of it! I personally enjoyed exploring La Serena by foot (the sunsets are particularly nice), went horse riding in the nearby Elqui Valley, went adventuring in the Atacama desert over Christmas (highly recommend), spent some time in Santiago, and visited neighbouring Coquimbo.
I thoroughly enjoyed my time in Chile in the AGUSS program and would go back in a heartbeat. It is simply a wonderful program and I cannot recommend it enough. If you're even considering it, apply! I would like to deeply thank everyone involved in this program and everyone I met in Chile, I am grateful to you all. To potential future AGUSS students reading this, I wish you the best of luck!
- Engage with everyone there and try to learn as much as possible. This is a rare opportunity and there's a lot of interesting people and things to learn!
- Eat ceviche and churrascos completos, drink local wine and pisco.
- Expect to walk a good half hour each way to the grocery store. Buy your fresh produce at the farmers markets though.
- It's about a 4 km walk to the beach.
- The AURA location (work/living place) is on the corner of Juan Cisternas and Huanhuali, up a hill.
- Remember to bring power outlet adapters for both Chile and U.S. style! If you live in the recinto (area with Gemini and CTIO offices and a bunch of houses) all the outlets are U.S. style.
- Try to learn as much Spanish as you can before going and take lessons there for maximum bueno. I recommend duolingo.com for practice and laserenaschool.cl for lessons.
- There's loads of dogs everywhere and they're generally friendly and rad.
- Read the posts by other recipients! Lots of info I tried to avoid repeating too much of.
The summer I spent completing the AGUSS program in Chile was one of the best experiences of my life so far. For 10 weeks, Marcus (the other AGUSS recipient) and I were given the opportunity to live and work in La Serena, a beautiful quaint coastal town in the mid-north of Chile which becomes a very popular destination for Argentinian tourists after the New Year. Not only is the beach stunning, but the town is brimming with culture, particularly at the Farmers Markets which sell some of the cheapest and most delicious fruit I have ever consumed. Summer in a popular tourist destination also meant many exciting events, including a great New Year's Eve celebration with live music and fireworks on the beach, a Jazz Festival, and even a Beer Festival!
Upon arriving in Chile on the 9th of December, we were faced with the difficulty of settling into a new work routine in a country for which the official language is not English. However, the excitement of being in a new country was more than enough to overcome this, and we rapidly discovered that Chileans are very friendly people who will go to great lengths to ensure their visitors feel welcome. Soon enough, we were comfortably settled into our new homes on the compound (recinto) of the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory, with which Gemini Observatory shares both a working and living environment.
After taking a day to recover from the initial shock of jetlag, we were introduced to our supervisors at Gemini South. I was working with Mischa Schirmer and James Turner on a spectroscopic study of quasar ionization echoes using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS). GMOS is a multi-purpose instrument, with the capability to be used an imager, as a long-slit spectrograph, or as an integral field unit. The data I was working with were taken using the integral field unit mode, which rather than providing information for only one wavelength over the field of view of a two dimensional detector (imager) or providing a spectrum over just a single aperture (single fibre spectrograph), provides the observer with a spectrum for every single pixel over the field of view of the instrument. Quasar ionization echoes are galaxies which have large amounts of ionized gas emitting brightly at visible wavelengths - but without any obvious source to explain the illumination. The aim of the project was to try to analyse and understand the kinematics and emission signature of one of these galaxies.
As part of the internship, Marcus and I also got the opportunity to visit some of the state-of-the-art observatory facilities in Chile. With a lot of desert regions and clear sky sites, Chile is home to approximately half of the world's telescope infrastructure. Marcus and I were lucky enough to take a daytime tour of the telescopes at Cerro Tololo and Cerro Pachon - including the Blanco 4m telescope, the SMARTS (Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System) telescopes which have mirrors with diameters from 0.9-1.5m, the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) 4.1m telescope, and of course the Gemini South 8.1m telescope.
We were also lucky enough to sit in for 2 nights' worth of observations on Gemini South. This was a big treat, as the operations at such a large telescope are very different to the operations I had previously experienced at smaller telescopes in Australia. Gemini operates in queue observing mode, which means that astronomers do not get the chance to observe their own programs, but the observations are carried out according to the weather conditions by scientists working at Gemini. The optical and engineering systems are also very complex - especially when the state-of-the-art Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) system is being used. This system utilises a constellation of five laser guide stars to correct image quality for atmospheric turbulence. During our nights at the observatory, we got to experience the propagation of the laser into the dark sky, which was an amazing experience in itself.
A week later, we took a trip to Las Campanas Observatory (shown at left), which hosts the twin 6.5m Magellan telescopes, as well as several smaller facilities including the 2.5m Du Pont telescope, the 1m Swope telescope, and the Chilean branch of the HATSouth planet-search network. Once again, we received day tours of all the facilities, and then spent 1 night sitting in on engineering observations at the Magellan Clay telescope.
This trip was one of the best experiences of my life, and by the end of the internship, neither Marcus nor I wanted to leave Chile. I would highly recommend this opportunity to any budding astronomers, as it is very enriching and rewarding both scientifically and personally and really opens your eyes to the possibilities that a career in professional astronomy can present.
Fulfilling, fascinating, fun - these are just some of the words which can describe my participation in the Australian Gemini Undergraduate Summer Studentship (AGUSS) program for 2013-2014. Along with Rebecca Davies from the ANU, I was lucky enough to spend 10 weeks in La Serena, Chile to work on an astronomical project with professional astronomers, using data from one of the leading observatories in the world.
Getting there: After catching a short flight to Sydney, I met Rebecca the next day to board a direct 13 hour flight to Santiago, Chile. We then arrived in La Serena after a short connecting flight and found ourselves in the "recinto" - an accommodation complex just for Gemini and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) staff members and their families, and our home for the next two and a half months.
La Serena: La Serena is a beautiful small coastal town, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. While foggy in the mornings, the weather clears to a beautiful sunshine and we were lucky enough to see the sunset everyday. It only rained a rare two days during our stay. Before the New Year, there were not that many tourists and the beach was nearly empty. After the New Year however, tourists filled the beachfront. It was a totally different atmosphere, more vibrant and hectic. There were many farmers markets and little shops to visit during the weekend where you can buy fresh fruit and produce. I would also recommend visiting the fish market in Coquimbo (a town next to La Serena). A little bit of Spanish goes a long way because almost no one speaks much English outside of the recinto. So a crash course in Spanish is highly encouraged (if you don't speak Spanish like me). If you are brave enough, try catching "collectivos" as well to get you around town - they are much cheaper than regular taxis. For those who like to try local food (which I strongly recommend) make sure you get your hands on an "Empanada", "Completo", and "Ceviche". Don't miss out on a Pisco Sour, or a "jugo naturales" as well.
Project: After familiarising ourselves with the Gemini facility and meeting the staff members, I was introduced to my supervisors and projects. Working under the supervision of Rodrigo Carrasco and Peter Pessev, my project was a photometric study of the "Antennae" Galaxies using data from the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager in conjunction with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics system (GeMS/GSAOI). GeMS/GSAOI is the near-infrared adaptive optics system at Gemini South. I learnt how to reduce the data and perform the photometric calibrations. While we didn't get much science results, we were able to validate our measurements with previously published results. My other project involved determining photometric calibrations with Blair Conn for fields observed in the EmPhaSSiS survey. I found both projects challenging at times but very rewarding in the fact that I did learn a lot of new skills and obtained results which no one else had obtained before.
Telescopes: We were very fortunate to visit the Gemini telescope not once but twice. The yellow sodium laser used for Gemini's MCAO was impressive and spectacular. The sodium laser is part of a system to correct for the distorted wave fronts due to atmospheric turbulence so that near diffraction-limited images can be obtained. We were able to sit in during observations for two nights, learning and trying to understand how the giant 8m telescope operates. On a separate tour, we also got to visit Cerro Tololo's Blanco (4m) and the SOAR (4.1m) telescopes. We also visited and sat in on an engineering run at Las Campanas Observatory where the twin Magellan (6.5m) telescopes are located. It was my first time seeing such large telescopes in action and it is something to behold. The pictures don't do justice for how big and majestic they looked. We also got to tour the facilities for each of the observatories which I found very interesting as I found out that the mirrors can be stripped, recoated and cleaned on site. The clear Andes night sky was also something to behold - it was just packed with stars, allowing us to see the Milky Way and the Magellanic clouds. Afterwards, we would return to the dormitories for some rest. Food was amazing as well!
Side Trips: If you work hard and organize your workload there is a chance to do a lot of travel. I did trips whenever I had the chance to. Close by, I visited places such as Pisco Elqui (a beautiful valley in the middle of the Andes where they grew grapes to make Pisco) as well as Coquimbo. Along with the other American and Chilean interns I was also able to see an international soccer game between the Chilean national side against Costa Rica. The atmosphere was electric and after that I learnt that Chileans are very passionate about their soccer team. I also went to Valparaiso and Santiago, a 7 hour bus ride from La Serena. Valparaiso is an amazing port city, very beautiful and has an amazing history attached to it. I would definitely recommend this as a must see!
For the longer trips, I was very fortunate to travel up north to visit the Atacama region as well as to hop over the border into Bolivia to see the giant salt flat (Salar De Uyuni), La Paz and Lake Titicaca. It was an amazing journey. To cap it off, I also managed to sneak down south to Torres Del Paine national park for some hiking. We saw glaciers, icebergs and snow-capped mountains. It was strikingly different to the environment up north. All these places I travelled to had so much to offer and I would definitely recommend everyone to visit them - you won't be disappointed.
Advice and Conclusion: Not only did I learn a lot about observational astronomy, I also had the chance to make new friends from all different parts of the world, network, and travel around South America. I would like to thank everyone that made AGUSS possible as well as my supervisors - without them I would never have had this wonderful opportunity. This is a once in a lifetime opportunity. So APPLY NOW!!
Information for future students:
- Learn Spanish before you go - it makes the experience so much better.
- Houses on the recinto have American plugs, not Chilean.
- Always carry some cash with you - sometimes the ATMs don't work or run out of money.
- If you decide to travel, don't expect things to always be on time and allow for delays. Also check for vaccinations if you want to go outside of Chile.
- Even though Chile is in South America, you don't need to hug your backpack at all times. It is a safe place if you use common sense.
- Bring a spare bag for souvenirs.
- Bring a nice camera - phone cameras and cheap ones don't work when you actually want to take a picture of the night sky.
My trip to Chile to participate in the Australian Gemini Undergraduate Summer Studentship began on the 4th of December, 2012. I left Adelaide and flew to Sydney where I met up with Benjamin Prout, the other AGUSS participant. The next day we flew to Santiago and then to La Serena. This is where we would be living and working for the next 10 weeks.
I was working with Rodrigo Carrasco, Peter Pessev and Claudia Winge on calibrating the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI). The imager has four infrared detectors which have small variations in how they respond to light. My task was to use images of photometric standards to produce a magnitude calibration for each detector. I learned how to reduce astronomical images into valuable data during this process and also how to use programs which are commonly used in the astronomy field.
While I was working on my project, I was able to visit the Gemini South telescope located on Cerro Pachon. The pictures didn't do the telescope justice. It is enormous. I was up at the telescope for 2 nights during a commissioning run of GeMS. This system is a new adaptive optics technique which provides a much wider field of view by using five laser beams instead of one. It was very impressive to watch the laser propagate. I also got a tour of the facilities at the telescope which included a room where all the instruments not on the telescope were stored, another room where the mirror is stripped back and recoated and then of course the dome. Outside, the scenery around the telescope is very beautiful. There are sheer cliff edges and barren slopes. However, despite the remoteness and lack of vegetation, the dormitory where I slept during the day had many native foxes hanging around. I thought that the mountains looked the best during pre-dawn light.
The town of La Serena is one of the oldest towns in Chile. It seems to be expanding with a mining boom and the traffic is quite chaotic. The people there are very friendly and understanding of my lack of Spanish. The houses were very colourful. We did most of our grocery shopping at the local Unimark or we went down to the major shopping mall which is not much further. Taxis are very cheap in Chile compared to Australia and there were lots of them. The markets were my favourite place in La Serena. They were bustling and I found that was where I felt the most immersed in the Chilean culture. Of course the beach is part of the lifeblood of the town since it fuels the tourist economy. The first time we went to the beach was before Christmas and there were only a few people there. After Christmas, all of the tourists came and the beach was very full. The sea was too cold to swim in though.
The recinto, which is the compound where the Gemini offices are, also contains housing for some of the people who work there including Gemini students. It is set up on a hill overlooking La Serena. The view at night was lovely -- especially for the New Year Eve fireworks.
During my stay there, I was lucky enough to be able to go on a day trip to a little town 100km away from La Serena called Punta de Choros. The attraction here is the two islands which are just off the shore, Isle Choros and Isle Damas. They harbour a wide variety of wildlife. On the boat trip we were lucky enough to have a small pod of dolphins swimming right next to the boat. We didn't land on Isle Choros as there were no beaches, but we saw many seals, pelicans, penguins, many other different types of birds and even a sea otter. After sailing down the length of this island, we moved onto Isle Damas which had a very white sandy beach. Luckily, the sun came out at this point and we could appreciate the beauty of this little island.
My trip to Chile has been one of the best experiences of my life. The program taught me so much about research in astronomy. The experience of being among the Chilean people was amazing. If you are a student looking at a career in astronomy research I would recommend that you apply to go. It is fantastic. (Oh, and watch out for llamas).
If you are reading this while contemplating whether you should apply to become an Australian Gemini Undergraduate Summer Student (AGUSS), I fervently and whole-heartily recommend you apply! This program represents the chance to experience the environment and thrill of scientific discovery at a world leading astronomical observatory; all the while enjoying the adventure of living in a fantastic and unique country. I could not imagine a better way to spend the summer! In case you are still uncertain about applying, I thought I would give you some details about my experiences as an AGUSS student in 2011-2012.
For the majority of the ten weeks, I was situated in the beautiful and quaint tourist town of La Serena. La Serena is about a five-hour car trip north of Santiago, and it is the town that hosts the Southern Base Facility (SBF) of Gemini. Early in December, the town was practically desolate of tourists and I was finding it hard to believe how such a place could be called a "tourist town" when there appeared to be no tourists besides myself and the other AGUSS recipient, Aina. However, the character of the town changed dramatically after New Years as tourists, the majority from Argentina, came and changed the spirit of the town. Very quickly there were beach parties, carnivals, and buskers to give the town a quirky vibrancy not present earlier.
All of this is set in the background of completing a major research project within Gemini. I was working with Benoit Neichel, an Adaptive Optics (AO) specialist, and Claudia Winge, a data reduction specialist, in characterising the mesospheric sodium layer. The major result we managed to elucidate from the data was the identification of a seasonal minimum in sodium concentration, and the required refocusing time on a natural guide star so that image quality did not degrade below a desired level. This information is vital to directing the queue system for the Laser Guide Star (LGS) AO system on Gemini South, and for the planning of the next generation LGS AO systems on the Giant Magellan Telescope. However, what I got most out of the project is not related to the results but was contained in the process to the results. It is through this project that I learnt a lot about the techniques of how an astronomer handles large amounts of data, codes key programming languages, uses images taken from a ground based telescope and makes use of the collaboratory nature of astronomy. I feel that this knowledge is invaluable, and it is something that is already proving priceless to me in my Honours year of study. Added to all of this were science meetings and colloquia, ranging from topics on Star Formation in Radio Quiet QSOs to Stars in the Periphery of Galactic Massive Stellar Clusters, which emphasised I was participating at the frontier of astronomy.
Aina and I also got the opportunity to visit Gemini South, located on the nearby mountain Cerro Pachon, on two separate occasions. The first instance was during full moon and a laser commissioning run, where the 50 W laser, GeMS, was being tested. It was awe-inspiring to see such a powerful laser propagate into the sky through the press of a single button! However, while such a phenomenon was amazing to behold, that marvel was dwarfed by the beauty of the night sky on our second visit to the summit. This time the lunar cycle was at new moon, so the sky was bursting at its seams with the number of stars that were visible to the naked eye. Losing the well-known constellations in the sea of stars I have never seen before is an experience that will stay with me for the rest of my life. Aina and I also got a chance to visit the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, which provided an excellent contrast to the culture and style of how observations are performed at Gemini South.
Finally, I was lucky enough on my last weekend in Chile to do a little bit of travelling. With some of the American students, who were on a similar program (REU) and appeared six weeks into our program, I organised a road trip down to the two famous towns: Vina del Mar and Valparaiso. Here I got the chance to visit the house of the famous Nobel laureate Pablo Neruda and I was able to soak in some of the amazing atmosphere of a trendy town. Also, since I was driving, I managed to have some of the frights of my life. Let's just say Chileans are a very relaxed type of people until they get on the roads!
Hence, I highly recommend applying for AGUSS. I had the time of my life as I was able to be part of the community of a fantastic observatory, all the while getting the chance to explore and adventure in a beautiful country. Believe me, you will have the time of your life as well!
I was working with Tom Hayward and Fredrik Rantakyro characterising the image quality of the Gemini South 8-meter telescope. We wanted to know which parameters affect the image quality and how we can better plan the queue when observing science targets with the telescope. To do this we analysed the Gemini Engineering Archive data, which contains information from various environmental, instrumental and telescope sensors. I wrote some data processing and analytical routines in the programming language Python which I had to learn for this project. Among other things we discovered that seeing was worst when pointing the telescope to the south.
Gemini has its own compound (recinto) where many astronomers reside. The compound is guarded 24/7 so very soon we knew most guards by name and they knew us. The offices are located at the same place so it was an easy 5 minute walk from the house we shared to the office. The Observatory staff made us very welcome from day 1. We were introduced to ALL the members of staff (how often does that happen at the places people work these days?). Apart from working on our own projects we also went to various colloquia which were organised every week, sometimes even several times a week. It was very interesting to hear what people are doing across the world with the data collected with Gemini and also other telescopes. It was also a surprise for us to discover that about 80% of staff are engineers and not scientists; in the university environment it is quite the opposite. However it is understandable as a lot of effort is put into optimisation of the telescope performance.
We were lucky enough to go up to the telescope twice. The first time was during a laser commissioning run, which was especially exciting for Joe as his project was all about that laser and the sodium layer it interacts with. The laser is absolutely impressive; a 50 W laser requires airplane spotters so the laser doesn't interfere with their operation. So the first time we had a large team of people even though there were no science targets observed that night. The mountain the telescope sits on is 2715 m high and is called Cerro Pachon. The primary mirror of the telescope is 8 meters in diameter and is absolutely majestic. So if the altitude hasn't quite taken our breath away, the sight of the mirror has surely done the job! On the same mountain there is also another telescope SOAR with a "humble" 4 meter mirror.
The second time we were on the mountain during the new moon and we could observe so many celestial objects! I brought my binoculars with me but the site is so dark, you can just observe with your own eyes! For those of you who know your sky, here are just some of the beautiful objects we saw: M41, M35, IC2602, NGC2516, IC2391, NGC3372, NGC3532, M50, M48, and IC2391. Gemini Observatory has a dormitory for the astronomers who are working at the mountain which is only 5 minutes away, so after a long night they don't have to travel far before hitting the pillow. We were also able to visit Las Campanas Observatory which has a whole bunch of telescopes. The seeing at that site is absolutely exceptional.
The base facility of Gemini is located in a beautiful town called La Serena. It is not very big but has a nice climate: it never gets too hot or cold, unless you go into the desert. Although it hardly ever rains there, we were surprised at how generous people were watering their gardens given the fact the dam level was only 30%. La Serena has a lovely beach which stretches as far as the eye can see. The water however is quite cold even though we were there in the height of summer. People are laid back and nobody seems to rush anywhere, except on the road: drivers in Chile are crazy and impatient. What impressed us most in La Serena was actually its fruit and vegetable markets! Imagine the freshest fruit you have ever tasted - but this is better! And incredibly cheap! Apart from grapes, watermelons, apples and other common fruit they also have these interesting local fruit that are even hard to describe, you just have to try those for yourself! A lot of those fruit flavours are added to ice-cream; in La Serena they love their ice-cream, it is sold absolutely everywhere! I also loved that they had so many berries, including those that you never ever see in Australia but that I am used to in Russia: like raspberries and red currants. Apart from the fruit markets La Serena also has lovely craft markets where you can get gorgeous knitted items with South American themes and jewellery. In Chile they love using the stone called Lapis lazuli in jewellery, it is very unusual and beautiful. There are no high buildings in La Serena so at night the whole harbour with all its beautiful lights could be seen from where we lived (up on a high hill). Right next to La Serena there is a port town called Coquimbo with a huge Millennium Cross and a fish market.
Food and Drink
Many cafes have lunch specials where you can get a 3 course lunch for as little as $6! There are many different Chilean dishes we tried, among which are: pastel de choclo (baked corn paste with meat), completes (hot dogs with avocado) and ceviche (fresh fish in lemon juice). One of the common sweet drinks is mote con huesillos, which is a sweet water with barley and pickled peaches. I know it doesn't sound appetising but it was most delicious! Pisco is a kind of fortified wine that is popular but in my opinion their best alcoholic drink is actually red wine and in particular wine made of the carmenere grape which disappeared from European vineyards a long time ago.
If you are the lucky one to be selected for AGUSS...
...congratulations! You will have so much fun working at Gemini and exploring La Serena. Brush up on your Spanish, trust me it will help! Try all the different fruit at the fruit markets, the chances are you will never see fruit like that ever in your life. Try all sorts of Chilean food and drink, it is all lovely. My recommendation: on the main street Haunhuali just 5 minutes down the road from the recinto there is an amazing restaurant called Puerto Callao. If you can, organise a trip to the telescope near New Moon - the sight of the stars will blow your mind!
The Chilean city of La Serena was a great place to work. The place was mostly quiet and laid back. Most of the city is within walking distance and taxis are fairly cheap. The beaches attract many tourists in the summer from Argentina. The locals were generally friendly. There were a few huge supermarkets and a shopping mall as well as food markets. There were also some great restaurants by the beach and were all fairly cheap. Our accommodation was located at the Recinto de AURA, a secure area containing our houses and the Gemini offices. We made friends with many of the other staff and students at Gemini.
I was working with Percy Gomez and Rodrigo Carrasco. My project was to use spectra taken with GMOS to determine the age and metallicity of galaxies to test theories on the formation of massive cD galaxies. It was the first time I had an opportunity to untertake real research, reducing and analysing data. We also attended meetings and presentations from other staff.
I was fortunate enough to get to spend two nights on Cerro Pachon, the location of the Gemini telescopes and observatories. I got a tour of the telescope and the facilities and got to see some of the instruments. Seeing the telescope in real life was far more impressive than I expected. From inside the dome I could see many of the surrounding mountains including Cerro Tololo. The sunsets were beautiful and the sky was very clear. We got to observe using both GMOS and NICI.
Over the weekends we got to explore various sights around La Serena. We also spent a few weekends in the Elqi Valley where we got to visit some of the wineries and Pisco distilleries. Over the new year most of the staff went home so Belinda and I took the opportunity to take a 16 hour bus ride to the desert location of San Pedro de Atacama. We woke up very early to see geysers, despite the pre-dawn cold of a 4300m altitude desert. We also got to see lagoons, watch the sunset over Moon Valley, see flamingos and try sand boarding.
As an AGUSS 09/10 recipient I worked at the La Serena Base Facility of the Gemini Observatory from December 1st to February 14th (just before the quake!) I worked with Steve Margheim, an Assistant Scientist with Gemini South, on an assessment of current stellar metallicity calculation methods. My university courses have been mostly theoretical so this was my first real opportunity to "get my hands dirty" in data reduction and analysis. Analysing data, reading and reviewing literature as well as preparing raw data from the telescope for analysis has not only increased my understanding of what a "real astronomer" actually does day to day but has allowed me to participate in research outside that which universities could normally offer an undergraduate student.
Throughout my stay in La Serena I shared an office with other undergraduates, admin interns, PhD students, and postgraduate computer science interns, from all over the world, all working on projects in various areas of Gemini's operation.
At the beginning of my ten-week internship I was fortunate enough to spend three nights on the summit of Cerro Pachon during my supervisor's observing shift. I was able to tour the facilities and those of the neighbouring SOAR Observatory and participate in the observations themselves, not to mention being on the summit provided the best view of the Geminid Meteor Shower!
I also spent a night at the Magellan Telescopes that make up the Las Campanas Observatory; it was incredibly interesting to contrast and compare the instrumentation and daily operations between the Gemini and Magellan telescopes.
Another complementary aspect to my research at Gemini South was the opportunity to attend lectures given at the AURA Lecture Hall in the Gemini offices at La Serena Base Facility. The ACS LCID Project: Star Formation Histories of Isolated Galaxies in the Local Group, Massive Clusters in the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Survey, and The Joint Formation of Bulges and Black Holes are just three of the talks that were presented during my ten-week stay.
Also as most of the staff travelled home for Christmas, I took the opportunity to travel around the country - sea kayaking with sea-lions, trekking up snow-capped volcanoes and exploring pictographs in desert oases!
The Australian Gemini Undergraduate Summer Studentship presents an amazing opportunity and I cannot emphasize enough just how much I would recommend this scheme to anyone looking to move into astronomy -- or a related field.
Being paired with an astronomer to work on a project and experiencing research outside of a Uni context was an eye-opening experience. I was set working with Gelys Trancho at Gemini, attempting to determine the age of four intermediate-age, remnant merger galaxies. After familiarising myself with a number of tools and programs common to the astronomy community (but which I'd never even heard of at uni), we succeeded in determining these ages which was, in short, very cool! We certainly put in a lot of work -- including a weekend or two -- but the opportunity to stand back in the final week and say, "I've done something that no one else has", was definitely worth it.
Aside from being amazing work experience, and giving you access to a range of programs and skills that you would otherwise likely not see until after you graduate, the AGUSS provides a remarkable opportunity to live in Chile for nearly three months. Having never lived out of home, let alone overseas before, I was a tad nervous at first. Once arriving in Chile however, I found the people of La Serena (where you'll be staying) to be extremely helpful, friendly and very, very laid back. Our colleagues at Gemini were amazingly welcoming and given that nearly everyone at Gemini spoke English we had no problems -- with the possible exception of a few strange looks at the market -- with the language.
Lastly, whilst living in Chile, we were lucky enough to get some travelling done. Courtney Jones and I spent New Year's in Puerto Varas, which was awesome. We also did a number of day trips on weekends to some of the sights and towns around La Serena. Just before returning to Australia, I took an extra week and did some walking down in Patagonia which proved to have some of the nicest scenery I've ever seen. Overall, I had an amazing experience and I strongly recommend anyone even thinking about applying to do so.
If you are considering a career in Astrophysics and a life of travel I have one thing to say to you... apply for this scheme, do it! Not only is it a chance to travel overseas to one of the most friendliest (if disorganised) countries you'll ever visit, but you get to work first hand with one of the most advanced optical telescopes in the world.
Discovering how a telescope is run, the many, many ways the data can be applied and making connections with many astronomy professionals from around the world are just some of the benefits of the program. The program allows you to enter into a real life research project run by your supervisor. My project looked at possible evolutionary theories attached to compact galaxy groups. It also allows one to two wonderful visits to the stunning Andean foothills which house the Gemini South summit, Cerro Pachon, where you can watch the astronomers at work collecting observations.
The town of La Serena where you get to live is a very relaxed city. Lovely people and plenty to see. I always felt safe in Chile. And the wealth of food markets at fairly cheap prices are always a bonus. Gemini also hires Chilean interns which you have the opportunity to meet and make friends with, one of the best experiences I've had by far.
A wonderful aside is the possibility of travelling a little while in South America (leaving ample time for any changes to flight plans!). I got the chance to visit Easter Island before I arrived in Santiago (Book this early if you're keen though! The planes fill up fast) and myself and my fellow interns went on a five day hiking trip (over the weekend) in Southern Patagonia's Torres Del Paine national park.
This is a brilliant opportunity, you learn a lot, get to travel and it looks great on your CV!
The journey to Chile began with a red eye flight from Perth to Sydney airport. I then boarded LAN airlines where I met Richard, another AGUSS recipient. After a brief stopover in New Zealand it was on with the 10-hour direct flight to Santiago. Fortunately I managed to sleep most of the way and the food they served was surprisingly delicious. The flight attendants announced everything in Spanish, Portuguese and then English. I soon became very grateful for the couple of Spanish lessons I had taken before leaving, since very few people speak fluent English in Chile.
We arrived in Santiago only 2 hours after we left Sydney (the time difference is 12 hours). We were met by one of my friends who happened to be on exchange in Chile at the time. Richard and I were privileged to stay with her and her host family for three days. It was a nice way to be introduced to the Chilean culture and lifestyle. We found them to be very hospitable people who are eager to teach you their language. We picked up some of the essential Chilean lingo such as "vamos" ("let's go"), "cachai" ("get it?") and "bakan" ("cool"). We also discovered that we would from then on be referred to as "gringos" (foreigners). I particularly stuck out as a gringo because of my blonde hair.
Santiago is not the most attractive city. It is incredibly huge and a layer of smog hangs over the city during the day. So Haley's family took us sight-seeing in the mountains around Santiago. They were very beautiful and covered in cacti. We went for a horse ride through the foothills of the Andes and then had our first delicious empanada. These are a very common Chilean snack and are fairly similar to pasties.
From Santiago, we had a 1 hour flight to La Serena where we would be working at the Gemini South base facility. La Serena is a lovely coastal town. It is relatively small and has lots of traditional charm. There are recent developments such as a big super market and mall, however you can still buy fresh fruit and vegetables from the Sunday farmer's markets. La Serena is one of the main holiday destinations for other Chileans and Argentineans due to its long strip of beach. For this reason, La Serena's population doubles over the summer and the atmosphere becomes very vibrant and lively.
While we worked in La Serena, we lived in a nice house on the recinto. The recinto is like a secured compound that houses the Gemini and Cerro Tololo office buildings and a number of rental houses for staff and their families. There are lots of pretty gardens and the houses are fairly big and fully self-contained.
Working at Gemini South
On our first day of work we met Emily (the other AGUSS recipient) who had just flown in from Easter Island. We then had a tour of the Gemini building and we were introduced to all the staff. We had an office to share between the three of us, and occasionally with visiting astronomers and engineers. The staff were very helpful and kind people and we made many friends. It felt like a truly international facility with people from all over the world. Although everyone spoke English, many also spoke Spanish, French, German, Chinese and Portuguese.
My supervisor was Markus Hartung, an adaptive optics specialist. Markus and I worked with high-resolution images of the red giant star Arcturus to see if we could verify claims that it has a companion star in orbit around it. I learned extremely valuable skills in data reduction methods and was introduced to some important software packages used for analysis. We did not find a companion star but we established limits on possible companion detections and found some useful techniques for processing data involving adaptive optics. These can be applied to data from the new Gemini instrument NICI (Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager). NICI was in its commissioning stages at the time of my visit. It will be used to search for planets around other stars.
I was fortunate to join my supervisor on the summit of Cerro Pachon for a few nights at the Gemini telescope itself. One astronomer must be present at the telescope each night to decide what object to observe based on the weather conditions and other factors. Astronomers from all over the world put in requests for certain observations, and these requests are put into a queue and executed under the most favourable conditions.
The telescope dome was very impressive. It was much bigger than I had imagined. I was involved in opening the mirror cover, the side vent gates and the dome roof. The entire floor and walls can rotate, as well as the telescope itself. The view of the mountains through the vent gates at sunset was unbelievably beautiful. There was absolute silence up on the mountain except for when a slight breeze blew. When it was completely dark, we went outside to look at the stars before the moon rose. It was the clearest sky I've ever seen, with the Milky Way glittering like diamonds. There were strange flashes of light in the distance which we later discovered was an electrical storm over the Andes. We worked in the control centre on the ground floor where there are lots of monitors displaying many different details. We slept in dormitories during the day and I had some time to explore around Cerro Tololo. I had to keep an eye out for a certain mountain goat that kept following me!
Emily, Richard and I were fortunate to witness some of the incredible natural beauty of Chile. We explored the Elqui Valley to the east of La Serena, where the vineyards extend up the mountainsides growing grapes for the famous Chilean wine and pisco brandy. We climbed to the top of the Cruz del Tercer Milenio which is an enormous cross built in Coquimbo, the harbour town neighbouring La Serena. We also travelled down to Patagonia in the far south of Chile. Here we braved the hike around the magnificent Torres del Paine National Park. We saw avalanches off the mountains, icebergs, a huge glacier, azure lakes, green forests and herds of guanaco (similar to llamas). Emily and I also took a side trip to Peru with the aim of visiting Machu Picchu, but had to settle with exploring Lima. A lesson learned - allow plenty of time when making a journey in South America so as to avoid disappointment!
Overall, this was an amazing experience and the trip of a lifetime. I discovered so much about observational astronomy, and about living and working in a different country. Thank you to the AAO, Gemini observatory and all our friends in Chile. I highly recommend the AGUSS program to anyone interested in astronomy as a career.
La Serena, as its name implies, is a small, quiet town situated between the foothills of the Andes and the Pacific Ocean. It as an amazing place to spend a summer, working with professional astronomers at the best and biggest telescope in the southern hemisphere. The surrounding beauty and nature offers a wide range of activities including; fishing, hiking, camping, horse riding, bike riding, exploring and travelling. All of which I had plenty of time to do while searching for giant galaxy clusters with my supervisor.
We arrived before Christmas, so we got to see the town and its people before the holiday season, when flocks of people flood the "beautiful" beach that La Serena and Coquimbo (a neighbouring town) are home to. Quickly we found our feet and were using the town's public transport system; buses, collectivoes, and taxis to explore our new home. Shopping for all the essentials, including maté, was made easy with the fantastic farmers markets and big shopping malls everywhere.
Work was relaxed and flexible, starting at about 9:30-10am and finishing around 5-6pm. This allowed for the opportunity to fit in a quick fish before work. Lenguardo (flounder) and corvina (sea bass) were the most common catches. Muchas (giant pippies) were also in abundance; simply walk along the beach searching for a sand bar, walk out to it and squidge your bear feet into the sand. When you feel them under your feet simply pick them up. Along with the fish they make a fantastic meal. I had no shortage of fresh fruit, veggies and seafood at my fingertips.
I was working with mosaic data taken with the 4m Blanco telescope. I was working on the Sunyave Zeldorvich Blind Cluster Survey, searching for galaxy clusters. I learnt a lot. But more importantly I gained an invaluable insight to working in professional astronomy. Work proved to be very interesting most of the time. Whether it was finding some really cool interacting galaxies in my images, or glancing out the window and seeing the largest humming bird in the world hovering over the beautiful gardens in the recinto. Chile is also home to the Andean Condor, their national bird. One weekend I was lured into the mountains north of La Serena, which run along the beautiful rocky coast. During this solo trip, in what I was told to be a "rare event", I saw these magnificent birds close up, they are huge!
Torres Del Paine is a place you should visit, its natural beauty is second to none. From towering, snow covered mountains with pristine rivers flowing into giant lakes, to huge glaciers and awesome wild life. My only advice is to buy a small cooker and take your own food, for the food that can be purchased along the endless trails is not to be trusted.
If you are thinking about this scholarship then APPLY NOW, it really is a once in a life time opportunity.
Australian Gemini Office
Will I get to choose my project and supervisor?
The allocation of students to projects and supervisors is made by the Gemini South Observatory on the basis of projects on offer. You can specify an area of interest, but no guarantee can be made that the project will be in your preferred area. Part of the aim of the AGUSS program is to give you the opportunity to work on something different from what you have done before, which may turn out to be more interesting than you thought!
Will I need to be able to speak Spanish?
No, the working language around the Gemini Observatory headquarters is English. However you will find the AGUSS experience much more enjoyable and rewarding if you at least try and communicate with the locals in Spanish. There's no substitute for immersion in a Spanish-speaking society to make you proficient in Spanish.
Can I travel around Chile and South America while I'm over there?
As a public servant you are not entitled to take extra time before or after your studentship for a holiday in South America. You are free to travel on weekends and public holidays, subject to requirements of your project and supervisor. However if you travel outside of the La Serena/Coquimbo or Elqui Valley regions, you will not be covered by the AAO's corporate travel insurance policy, and thus will need to take out your own insurance for that purpose.
Is it safe in La Serena?
La Serena is much smaller than Santiago, and in general is quite safe to travel around. Bear in mind though that Dec-Feb is the height of the tourist season, and pickpocketing and bag-snatching can occur. The Observatory compound has a 24 hour guard and is fairly secure. Your main risk is more likely to be from earthquakes or a tsunami.
What if I miss out on AGUSS this year?
AGUSS is an extremely competitive scheme - we typically receive 10 times more applications than there are studentships. For those who miss out, there are a number of similar programs operated by institutions throughout Australasia you may wish to consider.
If you have any other queries about the studentship scheme before applying, then please feel free to contact the program supervisor Stuart Ryder by e-mail, or by phone at (02) 9372-4843.