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Phd and Honours - Honours projects
Honours or Masters projects are smaller in scale than PhD projects, and aim to provide senior undergraduate students with a research project they can undertake at a level of ~50% of their time over the course of their enrolment. Honours or Masters students will be expected to write a thesis for their University describing this work, and are often also able to write up results for publication in a refereed scientific journal.
Some potential Honours/Masters projects are listed below. The nature of research is that some of these projects could be extended and grow into PhD projects. Similarly members of staff may have other projects waiting in the wings. Astronomy is a subject in which developments move rapidly - so the hot topics by the time such a project starts could have changed. All projects are worked out by discussion between you and your prospective supervisor, so treat this list as a source of ideas and a starting point. If you're interested in subject areas not covered below, you are encouraged to contact relevant AAO astronomers directly. Students who are interested in projects in astronomical instrumentation should contact the AAO's Head of Instrumentation, Andrew Sheinis, or the Head of Instrument Science, Jon Lawrence. Lee Spitler and Richard McDermid (AAO/Macquarie Lecturers) can also be contacted for information on Masters Projects through Macquarie University. PhD students who undertake brief (3 month) research projects in their first year, prior to starting their main thesis project can be co-supervised by AAO astronomers in such projects, and some of the projects below may be suitable for this.
Project: The best way to measure environment
Supervisor: Sarah Brough
Galaxies are found in a wide range of environments, from hamlets where they are a very long way from their neighbours to cities where they live cheek-by-jowl with thousands of other galaxies. Unfortunately there are many different ways of measuring that environment, each of which gives a slightly different picture of what effect that environment has. The aim of this project is to use data from the very large new Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey to determine the environment measure that optimally characterises a galaxy's true environment. This project will provide invaluable skills in the mathematical analysis of large sets of data.
Project: Unveiling the large scale kinematics of nearby galaxies in the Dragons survey
Supervisor: Caroline Foster
The projected shape of galaxies on the sky has been used to categorise and interpret the formation of galaxies since the dawn of extragalactic astronomy. Despite several decades of efforts, the classification of galaxies is still being debated, particularly with the advent of new technology able to observe the velocity dimension efficiently. This essentially allows for galaxies to be observed in 3D. For technical reasons, this kinematic classification is usually limited to the very inner parts of galaxies and could change further out. It is thus important to study the 3D outskirts of galaxies to obtain a reliable classification.
As part of the "Here be dragons" survey, we have obtained VLT/VIMOS spectra of 5 nearby galaxies out to large galactocentric radii. These data are mostly reduced and in hand. Given the success of this pilot project, we are applying for a larger survey (30 targets) on Gemini. With the current data, we hope to test the scale at which the kinematic classification holds and probe the kinematic transition beyond the usually probed effective radius. Indeed, these kinematically distinct halos (KDH, see Foster et al. 2013) have been observed in several early-type galaxies. A KDH is predicted for merger remnants, and given the fact that most galaxies are the product of multiple mergers, such a feature should be present in the majority of early-type galaxies. With this sample of varied morphological types (spirals to ellipticals), we hope to determine how widely spread KDHs are across the Hubble sequence.
This project offers the possibility of early involvement in the new Dragons survey, the use of data from world-class observatories and of a recently developed data reduction technique (Norris et al. 2008; Proctor et al. 2009) to push the galactocentric boundary. The selected student will acquire invaluable spectral and kinematical analysis skills that are easily portable to popular IFU studies. The Dragons survey is an international collaboration between scientists in Australia, Canada, Chile, USA and The Netherlands, offering a connection to further worldwide opportunities.
Project: 2D spectroscopic analysis of local dwarf star-forming galaxies
Supervisor: Angel Lopez-Sanchez and Heath Jones (Macquarie)
The new observational technique of 2D spectroscopy using Integrated Field Units (IFU) is providing amazing new results about the kinematics and the chemical composition of galaxies. In particular, Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDGs) are excellent targets to perform such studies, because their modest sizes allow that all the galaxy can be observed in just some few pointings. During the last year we have collected some 2D spectroscopy data of a sample of BCDGs using the new WiFeS instrument available at the 2.3m ANU telescope at Siding Spring Observatory, and the preliminary results are quite promising. We are offering the opportunity of study one or two of the BCDGs for which we already have good-quality data. In particular, this project will give to the Honours student an introduction to 2D spectroscopy techniques (we expect to continue the observations using both WiFeS @ 2.3m ANU and SPIRAL @ 3.9m AAT) and to gain some expertise in the reduction and analysis of this kind of data. The aims of this project is to perform an analysis of the physical (mass, star-formation rate, extinction, electron temperature and density, excitation), chemical (ionic and total abundances of helium, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, neon, argon...) and kinematical properties of the ionized gas within these galaxies, which may be compared with the properties of the neutral gas from our own ATCA observations. Finally, the student will also learn to write up the results not only for his/her Honours Thesis but for a subsequent publication. As an example of this project, please consult the 2D spectroscopical analysis of the brightest star-forming region of the local BCDG IC10, López-Sánchez et al. (2011) and this research image.
Project: The nature of the extraordinary supernova SNLS-06D4eu
Supervisor: Chris Lidman
With the advent of wide field patrol surveys, such as the Palomar Transit Factory and SkyMapper, we are entering an exciting era of discovering new types of transient phenomena. Hints of what might be discovered in the not too distant future are emerging from the analysis of data from much smaller surveys, such as the Supernova Legacy Survey or SNLS for short. SNLS-06D4eu is one such discovery. It is one of the most luminous and most distant supernova ever discovered. It is not clear what drives the explosion. One possibility is that it is a pulsating pair-instability supernova. Theory suggests that the progenitor of a pulsating pair-instability supernova undergoes two massive mass loss events. The supernova occurs when the mass ejected from the second event catches up to the first one. If SNLS-06D4eu is such a supernova, then there might be evidence of the first mass loss event in data that was taken up to three years before the supernova was discovered. The goal of this project is to analyse data taken before (and after) the SNLS-06D4eu was discovered and to search for evidence of additionally variability in this source.
Project: The Composition of Stars in Clusters - Tracing the Chemical History of the Galaxy
Supervisors: John Lattanzio, Simon Campbell (Monash), Gayandhi de Silva (AAO), Brad Gibson (U Central Lancashire, UK, visiting Monash in 2012)
Most stars are born in clusters. The oldest and most populous are the globular clusters which orbit our Galaxy. Within the galaxy itself are younger, less populous "open clusters". Recent studies have shown that the stars in globular clusters show chemical element abundance patterns that are unique to the clusters. We do not know why they are not seen in the Galaxy, but only within the globular clusters. Is it possible for similar patterns to appear in open clusters? Preliminary observations suggest that they do not, and that the stars within a given open cluster all have the same abundances. But how does the composition of the open clusters as a population compare to the patterns seen in the globular clusters? Are the open clusters showing a similar chemical enrichment history or a different history? It is proposed to collect data from the literature on the abundances in various open clusters and to compare these to the patterns seen in globular clusters. Do the open clusters show the sort of enrichment history that is seen in the Galaxy overall? Or do they share some of the patterns seen in globular clusters? The project will involve understanding stellar nucleosynthesis as well as the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, and work with a computer codes that calculate these properties. This project will involve travel to the Australian Astronomical Observatory (in Sydney) to visit and work with Dr de Silva.
Project: Spectroscopy and the Composition of Stars in Globular Clusters
Supervisors: John Lattanzio, Simon Campbell (Monash), Gayandhi de Silva (AAO)
Globular clusters are the oldest and most populous stellar aggregates in existence. Recent studies have shown that the stars in globular clusters show abundance patterns that are unique to the clusters. We do not know why they are not seen in the Galaxy, but only within the globular clusters. They may even be the remnants of collisions between dwarf Galaxies and our Milky Way. A fuller understanding requires us to determine the abundances of many stars in many clusters and to compare with theoretical models so we can see what stars produced the existing patterns. Project: We will source original data form the world's largest telescopes and then analyse this to determine the abundances of key species in globular cluster stars: perhaps Li, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Fe as well as the heavy elements made by neutron capture, such as Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La. Stellar models that can produce these species will be compared with the abundances we measure. This project will involve travel to the Australian Astronomical Observatory (in Sydney) to visit and work with Dr de Silva. There is also the opportunity to visit and observe with the 4m Anglo-Australian Telescope in Coonabarabran, NSW.